Analyzing the sclerocarpy adaptations of the Pitheciidae mandible


Primates are interpreted to be ancestrally adapted to frugivory, although some modern groups show clear adaptations to other diets. Among them, pitheciids stand out for specifically predating seeds. This dietary specialization is known as sclerocarpy and refers to the extraction of seeds from surrounding hard tissues using the anterior dentition followed by the mastication of seeds by the molars. It has been proposed that Callicebus-Pithecia-Chiropotes-Cacajao represent a morphocline of increasingly specialized anatomical traits for sclerocarpic foraging. This study addresses whether there is a sclerocarpic specialization gradient in the mandibular morphology of pitheciids. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to simulate two biting scenarios and the obtained stress values were compared between different pitheciids. Geometric morphometrics (GM) were used to display the morphological variation of this group. No support was found for the morphocline hypothesis from a biomechanical viewpoint since all pitheciins showed similar stress values and on average Chiropotes rather than Cacajao exhibited the strongest mandible. From a morphological perspective, it was found that there is indeed relative “robusticity” continuum in the pitheciid mandible for some aspects of shape as expected for the morphocline hypothesis, but this gradient could be related to other factors rather than sclerocarpic specialization. The present results are expected to contribute to a better insight regarding the ecomorphological relationship between mandibular morphology and mechanical performance among pitheciids.

In American Journal of Primatology 159,325–341 (2016)
Thomas A. Püschel
Thomas A. Püschel
Associate Professor in Evolutionary Anthropology

Wendy James Associate Professor in Evolutionary Anthropology at the School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, and Tutorial Fellow at St. Hugh’s College.